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Abstract

Table of Contents

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV

Appendixes


     

Part II: The Seed of the Woman

 

Chapter 15
 
 

Male And Female Created He Them

 
And Adam said,
This is now bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh:
she shall be called Woman because she was taken out of man.
and they shall be one flesh
.
(Genesis 2:23,24)

For the man is not of the woman;
but the woman is of the man.
(1 Corinthians 11:8)


       This chapter is really in two sections. The first, which comprises the text itself, is a general statement of what is currently known with reasonable certainty about the origin and development, in the maturing individual, of the differences in both form and function between the two sexes. It is important to be aware of these facts because, as will be seen in due course, they have a direct bearing on the taking of Eve out of Adam. The subject also has a direct bearing on the Virgin Birth and the Incarnation. The other section which might have appeared as supporting footnotes were it not as extensive as the text itself (!), will be found in the form of expanded notes which are at the end of this chapter. These scientific excursions are primarily intended for those who by background and training will wish to have a more detailed treatment of the evidence. These notes can be safely disregarded without any harm being done to the thread

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of the argument by those who do not desire to become involved in technical detail. The continuity of this study will not be seriously disturbed if they are simply ignored. The body of the text itself, however, has a very direct bearing on the creation of Eve out of Adam and is therefore quite essential to what follows later.

     When the female ovum is fertilized by the male, there is initiated an incredibly complex chain of events which culminate nine months later in the birth of a child. During the very early stages of this gestation period the development of the embryo is predisposed in certain directions by the possession of the sex chromosomes which are composed of two elements, one contributed by the mother and the other by the father. The mother can contribute only what is termed an X chromosome which predisposes towards the development of female structural, functional and temperamental characteristics, but the father can contribute either an X or a Y chromosome predisposing in the first instance to female, or in the second to male structural and functional and temperamental characteristics. In short, the sex of the child to be born is initially governed by the chromosomal contribution of the father. All chromosomes are paired, and the Y is dominant over the X chromosome when combined with it. A child conceived will therefore be subject during development thereafter to a predisposition towards femaleness if receiving an X chromosome from the mother and an X chromosome from the father (XX), or towards maleness if receiving an X chromosome from the mother but a Y chromosome from the father (XY).
      In the earlier stages of embryological research it was believed that the contribution to the ovum of the X or the Y chromosome from the male parent predetermined the sex of the developing child. It is now recognized however, that the word "predetermine" is too strong and should be replaced by the word predispose. The truth of the matter is that in the very early stages of foetal development certain disturbing factors may neutralize this predisposition and despite the presence of the supposedly determinate sex chromosome contributed by the male, the individual may emerge oppositely sexed. As Professor Dorothy Price put it:
(166)

     Although its genetic sex has already been determined, depending on whether a Y-carrying or an X-carrying sperm fertilized the egg from which it has grown, the early fetus is structurally equipped to become either a male or a female [emphasis mine].

      There are many factors which may disturb or confuse the relationship between the sex chromosome and the emergent femininity or

166. See Notes at the end of this chapter (p.10).

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masculinity of the individual, so that it has become useful now to make a distinction between sex and gender, between the physical appearance of the individual and his or her actual temperamental disposition which may belie the physical appearance. (167) It is apparent today that the chain of events during prenatal development may be influenced by factors other than the X or Y chromosome, though these other factors are by no means altogether independent of them.
      If and when such disruption occurs the sex of the child as assigned by the attending physician at birth (or later) on the basis of the genitalia or external organs of sex, may either contradict the chromosomal sex or may be indeterminate, appearing in the form of a mixture of both male and female physical characteristics.
(168) It then becomes a very serious, and often very difficult, matter for the physician to assign the correct sex so that the developing child may psychologically as well as functionally assume the appropriate role in society to suit the inner drives which he or she will be subjected to as the reproductive organs become mature and begin to produce those hormones that so strongly influence behaviour in adult life. Any conflict between these stimulators of sexual behaviour and the organs of sex which are appropriate to their functional expression can be devastating in terms of the psychological well-being of the afflicted individual.
     The truth of the matter is that a significant number of people are indeterminate to a more or less degree in this regard.
(169) Indeed, comparatively few of us (some would say virtually none of us) are wholly male or wholly female. We are all a mixture of both in adult life; and in the earliest stages of embryonic development we are actually neither. The body at first seems equally capable of developing into a male or a female, in spite of the predisposing presence of the XY or XX chromosomes which were formerly presumed to be the inescapable triggers of a purely uni-sexual development.
    Among the factors which can disturb or neutralize this triggering device in prenatal life are the presence of a twin of the opposite sex and, in humans, inadvisable medication during pregnancy. Postnatally among the factors capable of upsetting or even reversing sexual characteristics are operational intervention and so-called parasitic castration in which some parasite destroys part of the function of the sex organ itself, the testes of certain animals.
(170)
    It is now well recognized that under such influences a genetic or chromosomal male may become a female, both structurally and functionally. The reverse, however, is apparently very rare indeed,
(171) although there may be a tendency in this direction with aging due to the failure of the female hormonal system and emergence of some residual male hormonal activity which has hitherto been kept in abeyance by the dominant activity of the female hormone. (172) Thus an older woman

167. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 11).
168. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 11).
169. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 12).
170. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 13).
171. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 14).
172. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 15).

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may develop some male characteristics such as a deepening and coarsening of the voice, some incipient baldness on the head, beard growth, reduction of the breasts, and, psychologically, the development of a more aggressive disposition. These changes may be enhanced by certain pathological conditions.
     It has been found that "maleness" is for some reason not straight-forwardly achieved by the developing male fetus, which does not therefore merely "drift" into the appropriate form simply by possession of the Y chromosome. Maleness is, as it were, actively imposed on the growing organism against a tendency towards femaleness. The tendency to femaleness is in part due to the fact that the whole embryonic development has to take place within the confines of a uterus which is bathed by maternal hormones.
(173) The reverse does not appear to be true; a female fetus does not tend towards maleness.
    This active imposition is, of course, dependent upon the presence of the Y chromosome which causes the medulla of the gonad * to develop at the expense of the cortex. If this drive is weakened for some reason and the cortex begins to develop at the expense of the medulla, the hitherto neutral organism develops towards a female regardless of the presence of the Y chromosome. The gonad itself is, up to this point, "indifferent," and can therefore develop into a testis or an ovary, although for some unknown reason the gonad more easily develops into an ovary than into a testis. On this account the unborn male is said to have to "struggle" to maintain its integrity as a male. There is apparently no difficulty in the derivation of a female out of a male.

      If the gonad develops into a testis, male hormones are produced which structure the developing organism as a male: if it develops into an ovary, the reverse takes place. It is in this sense that the embryo begins as an entirely neutral organism from the point of view of its sexuality, the X and the Y chromosomes providing the necessary predisposition to decide which way the gonads shall develop, but not providing an infallible predetermination. In the absence of the Y chromosome the gonad has apparently no power to follow a course of development towards maleness, but even in the presence of the Y chromosome the other influences acting upon the gonad may still override the influence of the Y chromosome. To repeat, therefore, in the present state of our knowledge there are no barriers to the principle of deriving a female out of a male (an Eve out of an Adam),

173. Short, R. V., "Germ Cell Sex" in The Genetics of the Spermatozoon, edited by R. A. Beatty and S. Gleuchlsohn-Waelsch, Edinburgh, International Symposium at Edinburgh University, 1972, p.325.
* The gonad is the very first identifiable structure of the reproductive system to be formed in the developing fetus. The medulla is the inner core of the gonad as opposed to its outer layer or cortex.

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but there are evidently barriers to the derivation of male out of female. At the present moment it appears that the best explanation of such sexual indeterminism is to assume that the sexes were at one time not differentiated at all, that the individual was bi-sexual. With respect to Adam as first created, this could very well mean that he was gynandromorphous in terms of his physical constitution, and androgynous as to his temperament, a man/woman creation, subsequently divided into two: and that the process of separation involved the removing of a female principle out of the male as "woman." The man thus retains both the X and the Y chromosomes whereas the woman carries only the X chromosome.
    It must occur to the reader that such bisexuality as we are here attributing to Adam, converted into a monosexual being when Eve was subsequently separated from him, represents a situation that may well have applied equally to some of the other forms of animal life which also testify to a measure of residual bisexuality. I think this is quite likely. The surgical operation which separated Eve from Adam may not therefore have been the only occasion, or even the first occasion, upon which God acted in this way. This should not be a matter of any grave concern in that both man and animals alike also shared a similar experience of creation in the first place, similar at least in so far as both alike return to the dust (Ecclesiastes 3:20). It would surely not be so surprising that God should adopt a single procedure when introducing forms of life which share many things in common as to their overall physiology.
    Admittedly, it may seem to lessen the uniqueness of man's position a little but it cannot be denied and, as may be seen from the indexed references (chiefly #175, 176, and 177, at the end of this chapter) animals also share a certain indecisiveness in the matter of sexual dimorphism which parallels that found in man though in a far more pervasive form. We are not really robbing man of his uniqueness; we are only saying, as we have already said in another connection, * that God prepared the natural order before Adam was created in such a way that it would serve (when it came time to create man) as a natural framework for the working out of his redemptive plan, a plan which required that Eve be first of all part of Adam and only later separated from him for reasons which will become apparent subsequently.
     This is an arrangement which God did not merely use because it was already in operation, but put into operation because He intended to extend its use in a very special way.

* Custance, A. C., in the Doorway Papers Series, Grand Rapids, Zondervan: see particularly, "If Adam Had Not Died", Part III, , and "The Virgin Birth and the Incarnation", Part IV, in The Virgin Birth and the Incarnation, vol.5; and also "The Preparation of the Earth for Man", Part I in Evolution or Creation, vol.4.

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     The present tendency among biologists, where evolutionary thinking reigns almost unchallenged, is to assume in the light of what we now know, that sexual reproduction is a somewhat latecomer in the great chain of life. (174) Before it appeared there were no such sexual differences as we now observe widely among living things. Either sexual reproduction was non-existent (i.e., multiplication took place by simple division as in unicellular animals), or both sexes were combined in each individual which was self-fertilized by its own seed. (175) Such a method of reproduction is common among plants and animals, including insects, birds and fish. (176) In such animals it is not at all unusual for their bodies to contain a testis (on one side) and an ovary (on the other side), and not infrequently the individual has the power of self-fertilization though in some species there is normally cross fertilization with either sex. (177) The problem of the origin of sexual reproduction without which the concept of male and female has virtually no meaning in biology, is one which has baffled evolutionists because it is difficult to see what the intermediate stages could possibly be. It is not without interest that the very word Adam has come to be employed within scientific circles as a kind of code term to identify the whole question of the emergence of sexual dimorphism. (178)
    It is clear today that man still shares some of the androgynous character of certain species of animals and one must assume, I think, that the constitution of these animals below man reflects a design which the Creator adopted in anticipation of the creation of Adam who was at first similarly constituted with a bisexual nature in order that a certain further operation which is revealed in Genesis 2:21-23 might be performed to set the stage for man's redemption. As we shall see, the creation of Adam in this form and the subsequent taking of Eve out of him was planned by God for profoundly important physiological reasons in the light of man's foreseen history and foreknown need for redemption. The crucial connection between the Plan of Redemption and the initial form in which Adam was created, according to Scripture, will be explored subsequently. What is important at the present moment is to realize that this initiating surgical operation has left an indelible mark upon man, the evidence of which can still be a subject of fascinating research and the antecedents of which seem to have been witnessed in the prior existence of many other forms of animal life in which the sexes have remained combined in the individual. Such an Adam would have been quite viable.
(179)
    In man as a consequence of the Fall, the effects of this separation have been disturbed in various ways, to our distress. Certain irregularities in the distribution of the X and Y chromosomes lead to anomalous developments which nevertheless permit us to see something of the

174. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 15).
175. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 16).
176. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 16).
177. The common earthworm night crawler (Lumbricus terrestres) is both a complete male and a complete female. It cannot, however, fertilize its own eggs: there is reciprocal cross fertilization in this species. This may be contrasted, therefore, with the behaviour of the Mesozoon Dicyemida which can fertilize itself [H. Armstrong, Creation Research Society Quarterly, Sept., 1972, p.132]. This is known as autogamy.
178. Ulam, Stanislaw M., "How to Formulate Mathematically Problems of Rate of Evolution" in Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution, Wistar Symposium, Philadelphia, Wistar Institute Press, no.5, 1967, p.23.
179. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 16).

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specific influences of these specialized chromosomes by their exaggerated effects in such irregular forms. Thus in Turner's Syndrome the Y sex chromosome has somehow been lost so that the normal XY appears as XO. Only one X chromosome is found and this is presumably contributed by the female parent. As might perhaps be expected the virtual disappearance of the male sex component is reflected in a corresponding diminishing of maleness in the female child which results. Such an individual is considered to be a particularly "pure" female. (180)
    Meanwhile, in human beings there are vestigial remains in both sexes of the organs of the opposite sex, the nipples in man being an obvious example. However, there is some evidence that these particular organs in the male of the species are not entirely useless. Several reports are now available of men who have suckled children in cases of extreme need. David Livingstone notes a statement from the works of Humboldt who reported an instance of the male breast yielding milk. * Livingstone remarks upon an occasion in Scotland, where a man whose wife had been put to death, in desperation put his child to his breast and found, to the astonishment of himself and his neighbors, that milk flowed.
(181) Farley Mowatt gives a translation of a portion of one of the old Viking Sagas setting forth a rather similar situation: (182)

      All that night Thorgiol watched over his infant son and he could see that the boy would not survive unless something drastic was done. He did not intend to let him die if he could help it.
    Then he shewed his mettle, for he took a knife and cut his own nipple. It began to bleed, and he let the baby tug at it until blood mixed with fluid came out. He did not stop until milk came out; and the boy nursed upon that.


     Birds may be so completely convertible as to sex, in either direction, that there have been reports since the fifteenth century of roosters becoming hens and laying eggs, and hens becoming roosters with all their cocky characteristics. The Basler Chronick of 1624 reported that in 1474 an egg-laying cockerel was executed! (183) The Edinburgh Evening Courant in July, 1834, mentions a turkey cock in East Lothian which had hatched a brood of chickens. (184) Among animals, therefore, such transformations of sex and such combinations of diverse sexual characters within a single individual are frequent enough; and bisexualism or hermaphroditism is common in plants.
    The word hermaphrodite is formed from the names of two pagan

* Livingstone, David, Travels and Researches in South Africa, New York, Harper, 1858, p.141.
180. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 17).
181. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 17).
182. Mowatt, Farley, West Viking, Toronto, Little, Brown, 1965, p.147.
183. Ciba Symposium, June, 1940, p.495.
184. Turner, Sharon, The Sacred History of the World, London, Longman, 1837, vol. II, p.191, footnote.

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deities Hermes and Aphrodite, who are said to have loved so dearly that they begot a child combining both their natures in one. It is obvious that the ancients were well acquainted with sexual aberrations and sought to explain some of them in supernatural terms. Because hermaphroditism is by no means limited to man, I think one must assume that, like physical immortality, it was built into the Natural Order by the Creator in anticipation of the making of man whose history was to require a similar potential.
    It therefore appears, in the light of present knowledge, that in living forms below man a clear distinction between male and female is not always to be observed. In plants, bisexuality is exceedingly common, in insects frequent, in birds it is not rare, and in higher animals the distinctions are often blurred.
(185) Moreover, we know now that in animals conversion can be in either direction, maleness is easily converted into femaleness, and vice versa: whereas in man conversion from femaleness to maleness seldom occurs in spite of attempts by human intervention. We also know that a surprising number of people are almost equally male and female in some aspects of their constitution and character.
    Let me try to sum up, therefore, for the non-specialist reader the substance of what we have been considering thus far. Not many of us, with the possible exception of those who "suffer" from the Turner Syndrome, are entirely male or entirely female: we are all a little of both and some are so much so that their sex and gender are contradictory and life may become a very confusing experience.
   Present evidence shows that by so constituting Adam, woman could quite conceivably be derived out of man: but it is difficult to conceive how man could have been taken out of woman. To my mind, the creation of Eve was pure miracle: but the Christian who has once settled this fact in his own mind should surely not be surprised to find that research now provides him with a little better understanding of the background of what he has long since believed. There is no longer any excuse for denying the possibility that our first parents could very well have been united in one individual named Adam (Genesis 5:2).
    Neither can be wholly complete without the other and yet such have been the disruptive effects of sin through the centuries that constitutionally it is a rare thing when two are joined in marriage with entire success, for the true maleness or femaleness of both has been disordered. Consequently we are no longer two perfect halves which would make one complete whole even on a physiological plane: we are only two fragments and these fragments rarely match perfectly in more than a few areas of interaction.

185. See Notes at the end of this chapter (page 18).

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    Experience shows, moreover, that those whose sexuality is least clearly differentiated towards one pole or the other are often the most highly gifted but also the least fitted for marriage. (186)
    I suspect that the original "wholeness" that was in Adam at first was not merely the sum of two halves, but a compound with qualities and characteristics of which we can have little knowledge. * As the compound of two chemicals is usually quite different in its nature to the elements themselves, so the first Adam, as created, was such a creature as to be as full of mystery and glory as the last Adam was.
     So it is not at all necessary for the child of God any longer to speak apologetically about his faith in the creation of Eve out of Adam. This is sober history, and if we do not believe it, it is not because we know too much but because we know too little. Eve was taken out of Adam by a surgical operation, divinely performed while Adam was in a deep coma. And this mode of creation for her was essential, as we shall see, for the later appearing of the virgin born Saviour who was truly to represent the original Adam as God created him. This is miracle but miracle performed with a rational end in view and by a means that was essential to the service of that end. Every year sees further advances in our understanding of why and how this could be so, and leaves us with increasing wonderment at the ways of the Lord in creating man, and the extraordinary insight of the Genesis story.
    We conclude, therefore, that the record of the formation of Eve out of Adam is not only entirely reasonable but may in fact give us a clue which we would not, except for revelation, have had regarding the origin of certain aspects of man's form and function and temperament as he is now constituted. And by extrapolation, we may judge something of his original constitution when God created him.

186. See Note at the end of this chapter (page 19).
* According to Berdyaev, "man is really a bisexual being combining both the masculine and feminine principle in different proportions. A man in whom the female principle is completely absent would be an abstract being, and a woman in whom the masculine principle is completely absent would not be a personality. The masculine principle is essentially personal and anthropological, while the feminine principle is essentially communal and cosmic. It is only in the union of these two principles that we have complete humanity. This union is realized in every man and woman within their androgynous natures, but in the fallen world the two principles not only seek union but also wage war against each other." Man is a sick, wounded, disharmonious creature, in the thinking of Berdyaev, primarily because he is sexual, that is, a bisexual being who has lost his wholeness arid original integrity. [Nicholas Berdyaev, The Destiny of Man, London, Geoffrey Bles, 1954, chapter III, Sect. 3, titled, "Sex: the Masculine and the Feminine."]
As an example, salt is a compound of two elements that have very different characteristics. And even more remarkable is water with its incompressibility and other extraordinary qualities, composed as it is of two compressible gases.

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NOTES

166. (see p.2)  Price, Dorothy, quoted by Graham Chedd, "Struggling into Manhood," New Scientist, 5 June, 1969, p. 524. As Chedd notes, it is now believed that maleness is dependent not merely upon the presence of the Y chromosome but, at two critical points, upon two masculinizing substances, one as yet unidentified and the other testosterone or something very like it. It is virtually certain that these two substances appear only in the presence of the Y chromosome but apparently they may not be manufactured by the developing organism at the appropriate time and when this happens the fetus becomes feminized instead.
    Ursula Mittwoch, an outstanding authority in this area in Great Britain, observed: "It is now accepted that the embryonic testis plays a major role in mammalian sexual development. If testes are present in the young embryo, a male phenotype will develop, whereas if the embryonic testes are removed the phenotype will resemble that of a female whatever the chromosomal sex of the embryo" [emphasis mine: "Do Genes Determine Sex?", Nature, 1 Feb., 1969, p.446]. From which we conclude that not only does the human embryo have the capability of developing into either a male or a female regardless of the presence of the X or Y sex chromosomes but the genetic male may rather easily emerge as a female if certain irregularities in sequential development occur.
    The same author in another paper on the subject underscores the now apparent indeterminacy of the X and Y chromosome by saying, "Indeed, the assumption of sex-determining genes is beset with difficulties. Furthermore, the facts of embryology suggest an inherent bisexuality" ["Sex Differentiation in Mammals," Nature, 6 May, 1967, p554]. Mittwoch quotes Korens in Berlin as having stated that there can be no question of the segregation of genes for sex differences during gamete formation, but that on the contrary the gametes transmit the hermaphrodite condition on which the characteristics of one or the other sex are imprinted during subsequent development. It is because the potentialities for both sexes are present in both male and female determining germ cells, that Korens postulated the existence of some additional sex determinants ["Do Genes Determine Sex?", Nature, 1 Feb., 1969, p.446].
    This is a point which has been emphasized also by A. D. Jost who says: "The concept has been progressively developed that in the absence of any sex gland the body is fundamentally neutral sex, and that maleness or femaleness is imposed by male and female hormones produced by the sex glands. . . .  As early as 1913, E. Steinach was convinced that the early embryo was neither unisexual nor bisexual but asexual or indifferent until sex is imposed by the sex glands." And later he adds, "I have come to the conclusion that the simplest explanation of gonadal differentiation would accept that some mechanism perhaps the production of a special local hormone, correlated with the presence of the Y chromosome in the male [which Jost elsewhere terms an 'inducer' substance] triggers an early and rapid development of the testis in the rudimentary sex organ which otherwise would follow the slow pattern of development characteristic of the ovary" ["Development of Sexual Characteristics," Science Journal, June, 1970, p.67, 70].
    In a similar vein, R. G. Edwards wrote: "The essential unanswered question about primary sexual differentiation is the mechanism which causes switching of the gland into male or female development. Various theories have been expounded involving the more rapid synthesis of DNA and cell division due to the smallness of the Y chromosome, the heterochromatic regions of the X and Y chromosome, and balance between the medullary and cortical regions of the gonad. Early in differentiation, an inducer-like substance evidently determines whether development will be ovarian or testicular. Once determined, the gonad will evidently not support the growth of germ cells of the other sex" ["Sex and the Developing Embryo," Science Journal, Sept., 1969, p.89].

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167. (See page 3)  Ideally, it appears that the X or Y chromosome initiates the programmed development of the appropriate sex glands internally (ovaries or testes) and the external genitalia as well as the accessory organs of the whole reproductive mechanism. While the gonads are developing into paired ovaries or testes, the germ cells are migrating to these glandular structures in which they will be housed and further prepared for later presentation as ova or spermatozoa. Migration of the germ cells is believed to take place at first through the vasculature by amoeboid movement [R. G. Edwards, "Sex and the Developing Embryo," Science Journal, Sept., 1969, p.89].
    According to C. R. Austin, primordial cells "are seen first in tissue that originates from the fertilized egg but lies outside the true body of the embryo and are thus said to have an extra-embryonic origin. Shortly, in the course of embryonic development, the cells migrate from this site into the body of the embryo and move towards the genital ridges, regions in which the future gonads, the ovaries or testes, are to develop" ["The Egg and Fertilization," Science Journal ,June, 1970, p.37].
    So we have first, genetic or chromosomal sex determination. This is followed by a gonadal determination whereby either testes or ovaries are formed. These gonads produce hormones which stimulate development of the appropriate reproductive organs of either sex. Finally, by visual inspection of the external organs, the sex of the neonate is assigned by the attending physicians or by the parents and the child is thus cast in a special role by society which hopefully will reinforce, and be in harmony with, the physiological constitution.


168. (See page 3) Fritz Kahn observed: "In all mammals including man, the sex gland is very often accompanied by more or less well defined elements belonging to a gland of the opposite sex. . . .  On the one hand, it is not uncommon to find children whose external genitalia exhibit such a combination of male and female structures at birth that it is often difficult, if not impossible, to decide whether the infant is a boy or a girl. A child is born with a closed genital cleft like a boy but the ostensible penis is small like a clitoris, and the sex glands (testes) cannot be found because they have remained in the abdominal cavity. Or, on the other hand, two glands have become prominent like a boy's testicles but the genital cleft has remained open like a vagina and one faces the question as to whether the child is a girl with descended ovaries or a boy whose scrotum has remained open" [Man in Structure and Function, New York, Knopf, 1960, vol.II, p.734]. This helps to point up the difficulties which may face an attending physician who, for various social reasons, must make a quick decision.
    D. R. Keller of Basel, writing on hermaphroditism, remarked, "From our discussion, it is clear that while sex when fully differentiated is easy enough to recognize, it is rather difficult to define biologically. Indeed, according to Lillie, there is no such thing as sex but rather several dimorphous states with contrasting characters. It is evident that this applies to all living creatures" [Ciba Symposium, vol.2, no.3, 1940, p.485].
    The number of individuals who experience a conflict between their inner drives and their assigned sex and role in society seems to be on the increase. Peter Scott, in an article entitled "Identifying Gender," and speaking of the newborn whose sex is not easy to determine, observes: "Most of these babies are normal females (that is, their sex chromosomes are those of a female) who have been to some extent masculinized by male hormones which have either arisen within the baby's body or within the mother's body or have been administered to her during pregnancy." He lists at least six criteria that under ideal conditions might be used, but in real life are not all of them useful either because they are applied too late in life or because they delay assignment of sex too long. These are: (1) internal organs (there is not usually time for this kind of examination); (2) external genital organs (fully formed breasts would be identified too late to correct an error in assignment of sex at birth); (3) type of sex chromosome; (4) characteristic hormones; (5) assigned sex by the physicians or parents; and (6) gender role in society [New Scientist, 24 July, 1969, p.182].

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169. (See page 3) According to Hamilton, Boyd and Mossman: "True hermaphroditism is very rare, and among humans there are only twenty proven cases" [W. J. Hamilton, J. D. Boyd, H. W. Mossman, Human Embryology, Baltimore, Willams & Wilkins, 1945, p.220]. This was given on the authority of H. H. Young, Genital Abnormalities: Hermaphroditism and Related Adrenal Diseases, written in 1937. In 1946 Charles W. Hooker noted five new cases reported during that single year and states that this brought the total known to him up to 35 or 36 at the time ["Reproduction" in Annual Review of Physiology, vol.8, p.470]. In 1957 John L. Morris describes a number of cases of confused sex in some of which both male and female gonads were present in the same individual, and some clearly structurally opposing their chromosomal pattern. He notes that there were by then at least 50 histological cases reported. Some of the subjects underwent surgery to correct the malfunction of both internal and external organs and were able to bear normal children thereafter ["Intersexuality," Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.163, no.7, 1957, p.538-542].
    M. Bobrow and M. H. Gough of the Medical Research Council in England reported in Lancet a number of cases of otherwise completely normal young men with no testes whatever, the vas deferens ending "blind" behind the bladder. It has been estimated that as high as two or three in every thousand are biologically neither straightforward males nor females. Rarely are such individuals able to have children. . . . ["Bilateral Absence of Testes," Lancet, 14 Feb., 1970, p.366]. And now we learn from John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt that over the last twenty years more than 900 cases of hermaphroditism and related reproductive and psychosexual disorders have been seen in the psychohormonal research unit at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore [Science, vol.180, 1973, p.586]. And this is only one reporting agency.
     As a matter of fact, Morris' opening statement is: "While the differences between the sexes are the subject of considerable emphasis, male and female are not mutually exclusive, and both have certain anatomic and endocrinal characteristics of the opposite sex. The six-week old embryo is ambisexual, with gonads which may develop into either ovaries or testes, and two systems of tubules, the Wolfram and the Mullerian ducts, which develop into the male or female reproductive organs respectively. Sexual differentiation commences about the seventh week, but many rudimentary structures of the opposite sex persist after birth" ["Intersexuality," Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.163, no.7, 1957, p.538]. According to Money and Ehrhardt who probably have more experience in this area than any other researchers, true hermaphroditism by definition is that condition of incomplete external sexual differentiation at birth in which both testicular and ovarian structures are represented internally in the gonads. There may be one ovary and one testis, or even a pair of each: although most frequently both gonads are of mixed structure. That is, they are ovotestes.
    An ovotestis is a gonad which has developed both its cortex and its medulla components, where normally either the cortex or the medulla would have developed at the expense of the other. The rule is that when the medulla develops, the cortex gradually disappears until only a trace remains, and the structure becomes a testis: when the cortex develops, the medulla gradually disappears leaving only a trace, and the structure becomes an ovary. When both medulla and cortex develop equally, an ovotestis results, in which the medulla produces spermatocytes (later to become spermatozoa) while the cortex simultaneously produces oocytes (later to become ova). [John Money and Anke A. Ehrhardt, Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Baltmore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972, p.38, 39].

     pg.12 of 20     

    It is thus apparent either that the incidence of confused sexuality is actually increasing (possibly due to the widening use of denatured foods and/or inappropriate medication during pregnancy: see Isabel W. Jennings, Vitamins in Endocrine Metabolism, London, Heinemann, 1970, 148 pp.), or existing cases are receiving greater publicity. The news media in recent years have reported a number of instances of surgical intervention which has successfully corrected previous sexual indeterminacy, suggesting a changing attitude on the part of the public towards this unfortunate condition.
     In the New Testament the word eunuch is used to signify a male castrated according to the practices of the nations at the time: but it is also used in the spiritual sense to signify an individual, man or woman, who has deliberately sacrificed all that is involved in sex life in order to dedicate himself or herself entirely to the Lord's service. When the Lord refers to this circumstance in Matthew 19:12, He also notes that in the physical sense there are some who are actually born eunuchs, i.e., born without sex organs. Such abnormalities are not solely a modern phenomenon.

170. (See page 3) Whether there is a positive effect of such twin prenatal influence in humans or not, is perhaps an open question. The case is quite otherwise with animals, where such effects are well-known. D. R. Keller in an article entitled "Hermaphroditism in the Animal Kingdom," mentions pigs and cows as among the more familiar examples. He observes: "Especially in the pig have a relatively large and varied number of cases of hermaphroditism been observed and studied for a long time." Of cows he says, "A particular form of abnormal hermaphroditism designated at present as hormonal intersexuality, occurs when cows bring forth twins of different sex. The female animal may then exhibit marked male characteristics. Such 'Freemartins' have been known to farmers and animal breeders from time immemorial. The origin is ascribed to hormonal action arising from the male embryo, stimulating the female fetus to develop in a masculine direction. Embryologists have demonstrated that the production of testicular hormone can begin earlier than that of ovarian hormone, because the testis in mammals begins to differentiate in an earlier developmental stage than the ovary. Consequently the testicular hormone can exert an inhibitory effect on the development of the genital apparatus in the female twin. Such Freemartins may exhibit varying degrees of intersexuality owing to the circumstance that the two placentas can fuse at various times during embryonic life" [Ciba Symposium, June, 1940, p.478].
    P. K. Basrur et al have reported similar abnormalities in a horse which was registered as a male at birth but exhibited several intersexual aberrations of internal and external genitalia. This was attributed to an interchange of blood cell precursors and primordial germ cells between heterosexual twins through vascular anastomoses in the foetal membranes during pregnancy ["Further Studies on the Cell Populations of an Intersex Horse," Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, Oct., 1970, p.294-296].
     Such disturbing hormonal influences may reach the fetus from the mother where hormones are administered in treatment of threatened abortion. Money and Ehrhardt refer to data on genetic females whose mothers were given large pregnancy-saving doses of progestin. All these infant girls suffered from progestin-induced hermaphroditism (androgenization) of the external genitalia which was surgically corrected. The authorities state that these girls nevertheless retained in some aspects the masculinization which the operation was intended to correct against [Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972, p.95ff., especially p.99 on Tomboyism in girls].

     pg.13 of 20     

     Operational intervention is not usually thought of as upsetting the normal sexual development, but rather correcting for it. However, there are cases where normal development has been upset by accident. One such example is that of a child, raised as a girl, though actually a boy "whose penis was completely lost due to clumsy circumcision at seven months" [Money and Ehrhardt, ibid., p.118].
To my knowledge, the term "parasitic castration" has not yet been applied to man, but it has been found in animals. G. E. and N. MacGinitie state: "Barnacles of the genus Sacculina are among the most unusual parasites in the animal kingdom. At one stage of its development the barnacle larva attaches itself to a 'hair' on a crab's body and penetrates the covering of the hair and travels down its hollow tube to the interior of the crab. It develops inside the crab, but the only external manifestation of the parasite is a formless reproductive sac that grows in the region of the crab's abdomen. The creeping spreading growth destroys the testes of the host, whereupon organs of the other sex begin to develop and to produce female reproductive hormones. These hormones will initiate the growth of secondary sexual characteristics, such as a wider abdomen and female genital pores. Thus, as a result of parasitism, an almost complete sex reversal occurs. Biologists sometimes call this 'parasitic castration.'" [A Natural History of Marine Animals, New York, McGraw, 1968, p.261263].
     V. H. Mottram. in his Physical Basis of Personality and speaking of a hen which after a year of normal "henny" characteristics had become dominating and cocky in her relations with the rest of her sisters, notes that she grew feathers, comb and spurs appropriate to a rooster and begat a number of chickens "before her sacrifice on the altar of genetics." Then it was discovered that avian tuberculosis had destroyed her ovaries and that from undifferentiated germinal tissue she had grown testes. Since birds (unlike other animals) are heterosexual, the possession of a Y chromosome leads to a female sex and it may therefore be that the female can more easily convert to a male in the way that among other animals species it is the male which can convert to female [London, Penguin Books, 1949, p.11].

171. (See page 3) Transexualists are people who wish to become members of the opposite sex not merely in behaviour and dress but by operational intervention if possible. Transvestites wish only to dress in the clothing of the opposite sex. According to an editorial in the British Medical Journal [vol.1, 1966, p.872] under the title "Transexuality," "Transexuality is more frequently reported in man than in woman, the excess varying anywhere from 50:1 to 3:1, according to different estimates." There is a very large difference between these estimates, but the editorial quotes J. H. Schultz as asserting categorically that true transexuality occurs only in man, never in woman [in Intersexuality, edited by Claus Overzeir, London, 1963]. According to R. G. Edwards, development is always female unless a testis is present, when male patterns of differentiation are then imposed on the fetus almost irrespective of the genotype of the fetus, and he refers to the condition known as testicular feminization. In such cases of hermaphroditism the subjects are generally XY and are often found to possess testes (as would be expected) "but the internal and external genitalia are predominately female and the patient behaves as a woman" ["Sex and the Developing Embryo," Science Journal, Sept., 1969, p.89].


     pg.14 of 20     

    Isabel Jennings observed: "In the presence of functioning pituitary the gonad in the genetic male begins to secrete androgen. . . . Loss of this activity by castration or by chemical means or by parasitism inhibits this process and feminization occurs" [Vitamins and Endocrine Metabolism, London, Heineman, 1970, p.140]. By contrast, at least in mammals, the gonadectomized female has no such tendency towards the development of male sexual characteristics. I do not recall any report via the news media of an assigned female being operationally transformed into a male, but there are numerous reports of the reverse, and such reports demonstrate clearly that if the social and environmental conditions are favourable, the transformation can be carried through with success. Moreover, such transformations have occurred in men who had already fully matured and had even fathered children successfully. The Toronto Telegram of 6 March, 1954, carried the story in some detail of an ex-Royal Air Force hero who was the father of two children, aged 10 and 12, who is now to all intents and purposes an entirely different individual different in name (Robert became Roberta), different in sex, different in habits of life, and different in temperament. The medical report states categorically that in spite of having fathered two children and raised them to adolescence, "she is undoubtedly a woman."  They also say that they had known of no previous case where the change had occurred so late in life (at 35 years of age). As we have already noted (see ref. # 169), J. L. Morris reported some instances of hermaphroditic subjects with testicular feminization who underwent surgery and later delivered a normal child, provided only that the ovaries were still present and the vagina not blind ["Intersexuality," Journal of the American. Medical Association, vol.163, no.7, 1957, p.540]. Here, then, we have what amounts to a full cycle conversion, male into female and father into mother. Eve who was formed out of Adam became the mother of all living (Genesis 3:29).

172. (See page 3) On this subject, Fritz Kahn has observed: "The male and female sex glands, as well as the male and female hormone, are antagonistic in their actions. If a female sex gland is implanted in a man, it is rapidly destroyed, and the same thing happens to a testicle implanted in the body of a sexually immature woman. Nevertheless, throughout its entire life, every organism retains some genital tissue belonging to the opposite sex...When the sex gland becomes weak in the course of the aging process, it sometimes happens that the tissue of the other sex begins to predominate. This explains the well-known fact that after the menopause women become masculinized to some degree by developing facial hirsutism and acquiring coarser masculine features, a deeper voice, and a gruff manner" [Man in Structure and in Function, New York, Knopf, 1960, vol.II, p.737, 738] . Kahn has a photograph of a woman who had experienced what he terms "a crass case of masculinization." He says of this woman that until a few years previously she had been completely feminine. One day, however, a tumor had developed due to a proliferation of cells which belonged to the opposite sex and which then flooded her body with male hormone.

174. (See page 6) In this connection, Ursula Mittwoch observes: "It is evident that both the evolutionary and the embryological evidence demonstrate that the origin of separate sexes is in hermaphroditism. . . .  We may thus picture the evolution of sex chromosomes as having occurred in three stages. During the first stage individuals were hermaphroditic. This was followed by the second stage in which separation of the sexes was achieved by environmental factors such as temperature. . . .  Lastly, a pair of unequal chromosomes was set aside under whose influence males and females would develop in equal numbers ["Sex Growth and Chromosomes," New Scientist, 15 July, 1971, p.127]. This could be viewed as a reflection of what happened at an accelerated rate in the case of Adam and Eve. At first the two sexes were combined in one individual: their separation was effected: and each separated half was then reconstituted as a whole organism in its own right all this taking place perhaps in a matter of minutes?

     pg.15 of 20     


175. (See page 6) E. A. Lapham and H. Morowita, speaking of the Dicyemida, point out that these simple creatures develop a structure that may be thought of as a kind of hermaphroditic gonad. This is in a sense the only organ that the Mesozoa possess, and it produces both eggs and sperm. The eggs produced are fertilized by sperm frequently from the same organ ["The Mesozoa," Scientific American, Dec., 1972, p.95]. It is evident that however sexual dimorphism has come about in man, among lower animals the division was sometimes highly uneven. According to V. Geodakyan, in the mountains of Armenia on the shores of Lake Sevan, colonies of lizards exist which are entirely female, laying only unfertilized eggs and hatching them, thus breeding strictly by parthenogenesis ["Why Two Sexes?", Meditsinskyia Gazeta (Medical Gazetteer), Moscow, 23 Mar., 1966 translated buy the Joint Publication Research Service, US Dept. Commerce, Washington, and issued as JPRS No.35321]. There is a small fish known under the name Labroides dimidiatus which is specifically sexed as either male or female but the females have the power of becoming males if the male happens to desert the harem. The most dominant of the ten or so females in the harem begins to change its sex within a few hours of the departure of the male [Ross Robertson, "Sex Changes Under the Waves," New Scientist, 31 May, 1973, p.538].

176. (See page 6) John Burton observes that parthenogenesis takes place in insects, fishes, reptiles and even birds. He notes that it has been clearly established that the eggs are not being fertilized by any males. . . .  though the eggs can be! ["Virgin Birth in Vertebrates," New Scientist, 9 Aug., 1973, p.334].
     Under the heading Hermaphrodite, the Encyclopedia Britannica [vol.11, 1953, p. 503] makes reference to what is called "functional hermaphroditism in animals, a condition in which both male and female gametes are produced by one and the same individual . . . occasionally fish and birds have both sex organs, one on each side. Gynandromorphism leads to two half-animals (male and female) united in one . . . (chiefly in insects)."
    More recently the National Institute for Agronomical Research in France reported the breeding of bisexual trout which produce both eggs and sperm. "The breeding process is fairly simple and requires feeding young normal trout with small doses of substances which act on the biological sex differentiation. About 30% of those treated become bisexual within two to three years. Each bisexual trout can produce about 1000 normal trout and experiments are just starting to find out exactly how the process can benefit fish farms by giving rise to trout of superior quality" [New Scientist, 12 Jan., 1978, p.93].

179. (See page 6)  A work was published in 1974 dealing with the clinical, morphologic and cytogenetic aspects of hermaphroditism. The author is Professor W. van Niekerk, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in the Tygerberg Hospital, Parow, Cape Province, South Africa. This is perhaps the most complete study of the subject to be published in recent years. Among the case histories in this volume is that of an individual who developed to maturity with a truly hermaphroditic constitution including an active testis and an active ovary. Normal sperm were found in the testis on the left side, and an ovary with numerous follicles and some ova were observed on the right side [True Hermaphroditism, Willem A. van Niekerk, New York, Harper and Row, 1974, 200 pp. , especially p.112].

     pg.16 of 20     


180. (See page 7)  Money and Erhardt point out that girls with Turner's Syndrome are "more extremely feminine" than normal XX females. They conclude from this that masculinity and femininity are not really discrete entities but lie along a unidimensional continuum which would see pure masculinity at one extreme and pure femininity at the other extreme and a continuous graduated series of mixtures in between. Turner's Syndrome, as they interpret the evidence, places the individual further to the feminine pole than the normal female, thus leading to a "purer" sexual type [Review in Science, vol.180, 1973, p.587; and Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972, p.107ff.]

181. (See page 7) Cynecomastia or gynecomazia, a condition where the male mammary glands are well developed and may secrete milk, is a recognized phenomenon, being reported by early writers including Aristotle and referred to by the French as la couvade. More recently, the famous physiologist, John Hunter, records the instance of a sailor who, having lost his wife, took his son to his own breast to quiet him and after three or four days was able to nourish him. He also mentions the case of a man of 50 who shared equally with his wife the suckling of their children. In Franklin's Voyage to the Polar Seas, he quotes the case of an old Chippewa who, on losing his wife in childbirth, had put the infant to his breast and earnestly prayed that milk might flow; he was fortunate enough to eventually produce sufficient milk to rear the child [See further on this G. M. Gould and W. L. Pyle, Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine, New York, Julian Press, 6th printing, 1966, p.395397].
    Under the heading "Milk Hormone Produced at the Slightest Touch," the following observation is made: "Prolactin is one of the galaxy of peptide hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and its main function has to do with the production of milk in lactating females. Biologists in Washington University School of Medicine have been looking at the way prolactin secretion is initiated in non-lactating individuals both males and females [my emphasis]. Occasionally milk is produced in individuals following mechanical stimulation of the breasts. . . .  Simple stroking of the breast and nipple in the female subjects for five minutes induced a dramatic increase (at least ten times) in the prolactin output of the pituitary. Curiously, when wives manipulated their husband's nipples prolactin output rose." Reference is made in a Note, in Nature, vol.238, 1972, p.284; quoted in New Scientist, 10 Aug., 1972, p.277].
    In a Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, there occurred the following observation: "It is not a very uncommon circumstance to find both among human kind and animals, males whose breasts contain milk. Among the lower orders of people in Russia milk in the breasts of men is much more frequent than among the more southern nations. . . ." It may be of interest to note with respect to the last observation that the Scyths who migrated into Russia, according to Hippocrates showed a high incidence of hermaphroditism as though it were almost a racial character, and some skeptics of reports of male breast feeding have suggested that only a hermaphrodite could possibly perform this function. Perhaps Hippocrates' observation sheds some light on this matter. This information was published by the Medical Librarian, Evansville, Indiana, in a local paper dated 2 Aug., 1972.
    The San Francisco Chronicle [6 Nov., 1976] reported a billy goat which was observed by two scientists at Garhwal University in the State of Delhi, India, to be producing milk from normal mammary glands, yet all its other sex organs were clearly male.

     pg.17 of 20     


    As Dr. A. E. Wilder Smith points out, both sexes synthesize both male and female hormones. Males synthesize female hormones and females synthesize male hormones. In fact after certain operations it is often necessary to treat the female to prevent the undue expression of the male hormones as a result of the depletion of the female hormone, and in old age with the decline of the female glands which produce these hormones, the female body may occasionally assume a number of quite marked male characteristics. Wilder Smith observes wisely that if human ancestry from an evolutionary standpoint is ultimately to be traced through reptiles which do not nurse their young and therefore have no nipples, it is difficult to account for the possession of nipples by the male unless we assume that they served a purpose at some time in the past [Man's Origin, Man's Destiny, Wheaton, Shaw, 1960, p.105]. For this is how the evolutionists must account for nipples in the female of the species. He therefore concludes that we have to assume that they were at one time functional, or at least potentially so. If Adam were originally bisexual, his nipples would undoubtedly have been routinely functional and only ceased to be so because Eve was taken out of him.
    It has more recently been discovered that males also produce relaxin, a substance which softens the pubic bone in the female, allowing the fetus a little more freedom of passage. In the male it is produced by Leydig cells which also produce the male sex hormone, testosterone. This was reported by M. P. Dubois, of the National Institute of Agricultural Research, and Jean-Louis Dacheux of the Laboratory of Comparative Physiology in Tours, France [Cell and Tissue Research, vol.187, 1978, p.201].
    It should be said that when, for pathological reasons, the genetic male does not respond to the androgen produced by the testes (a condition known as androgen insensitivity) the body develops with essentially female external genitalia and with female sensitivities, and will almost certainly be assigned a feminine sex role. This condition is also termed testicular feminization, for obvious reasons. The male testes therefore produce sufficient estrogen to impress female characters on what should have been a male body.
    Thus, a male can give rise to a male or to a female, but a female cannot give rise to a male or only so rarely that many authorities deny the possibility, and reports of such are probably misrepresentations of the actual facts. Eve can easily be conceived as having been derived out of Adam, but not Adam out of Eve. In 1866, Franz Delitzsch, in his System of Biblical Psychology, made a remarkable observation regarding the forming of Eve. He said: "Eve is certainly not Adam's child, but Adam himself in a different sex" [See p.133, Baker reprint, 1966].
    Even in the matter of the external genitalia, it has so far proved impossible to convert a female to a male by surgical intervention or by the administration of hormones, but the reverse operation is now quite successful when it is considered proper. An actual case of the conversion of a true male into a female, an event necessitated only as a result of an unfortunate accident, is given by Money and Ehrhardt [Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972, p.95116 and 118f., esp. p.113].


185. (See page 8) R. V. Short has a very good summary statement at this point: "In this review I would like to consider the essential differences between sexual and somatic tissues in mammals, and the way in which these two cell lines may be subject to separate genetical control mechanisms.

     pg.18 of 20     


    "Natural sex reversal occurs commonly in a number of lower vertebrates [Chan, S. T. H., "Natural Sex Reversals in Vertebrates," Philosopical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, vol.259, 1970, p.5971.1970], and complete, functional sex reversal can be achieved in fish and amphibia by adding steroidal sex hormones to the water in which they are swimming [Ohno, S., Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Genes, Berlin, Springer-Verlag,, 1967]. There are occasional reports of spontaneous functional sex reversal in birds [Crew, F. A. E., Studies in Intersexuality II: "Sex-reversal in the Fowl," Proceedngs of the Royal Society, London, vol.95, 1923, p.256278], and if the single ovary of a hen is removed surgically, the contralateral gonadal remnant will develop into a testis and may produce spermatozoa (Miller, R. A., "Spermatogenesis in a Sex-reversed Female and in Normal Males of the Domestic Fowl, Gallus domesticus," Anatomy Review, vol.70, 1938, p.155189.1938). Partial gonadal reversal occurs when male chick embryos are treated with estrogen [Erickson, A. E. and G. Pincus, "Modification of embryonic development of reproductive and lymphoid organs in the chick," Journal of Embryology exp. Morphology, vol.16, 1966, p.211229], or when embryos of opposite sex develop within the same egg and acquire extensive vascular interconnections [Lutz, H. and Y. Lutz-Ostertag, "Free-martinisme spontane chez les Oiseau," Developmental Biology, vol.1, 1959, p.364376. ]. In the Virginia opossum, a marsupial, partial gonadal sex reversal can be produced by treating the pouch young with steroids [Burns, R. K., "Role of hormones in the differentiation of sex" in Sex and Internal Secretions, 3rd edition, vol.1, Baltimore, Wilkins, Williams, 1961, p.76158]. But in mammals, complete functional sex reversal never occurs naturally, and even partial gonadal sex reversal cannot be induced experimentally with steroids (Burns, ibid.). It is therefore tempting to conclude that the plasticity of gonadal development in fish, amphibians and birds had to be forsaken in mammals, where the whole embryonic development has to take place within the confines of a uterus which is bathed by maternal hormones. Such a situation demands a much more immutable genetic control if the fetus is to develop its sexuality independently of its mother" ["Germ Cell Sex" in The Genetics of the Spermatozoon, Proceedings of International Symposium at Edinburgh, August, 1971, edited by R. A. Beatty and S. Gluecksohn-Waelsch, Edinburgh, 1972, p.325f.].

186. (See page 9)  The world famous Vienna psychiatrist, Carl Gustav Jung, was convinced that if personalities could be arranged in some kind of order from superior to inferior, at the very top of the list one would have to place those who somehow seem to combine within themselves in almost equal measure male and female personality traits and characteristics. Jung believed that such people under favourable conditions are likely to achieve "the highest human perspective and creative expression. But this gynandromorphic admixture appears to introduce a peculiar delicacy and a hair-trigger emotional intensity into the human machinery" [quoted by W. H. Sheldon, The Varieties of Human Physique, New York, Harper Bros., 1946, p.257]. More recently Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi reported the results of some interesting psychological experiments involving particularly creative people, and came to the following conclusions: "The creative person is not stereotypic in temperament. The male exhibits some of the feminine sensibilities: the female some of the masculine sensibilities. In our own work with artists, the males were more feminine on a sensitivity scale than other males, and the females more masculine on a tough-minded scale than other females" [L. J. W. Getzels and M. Csikszentmihalyi, "Scientific Creativity," Science Journal, vol.3, no.9, 1967, p.80, 84].

     pg.19 of 20     


    I think this reflects the same situation. There are differences in temperament and in other significant psychological ways between the sexes which are mutually contributory to the total well-being of both. Where they can be combined in one individual, or where two individuals (man and wife hopefully) can pool their best resources, there we ought to find human potential at its highest levels of creative expression. Presumably, in Adam as first created all these potentials were maximized in a single individual. What is at issue here is not physiological function but temperament.
    The best explanation of the facts as presently understood seems to me, in the light of Scripture, to be that the earliest forms of life which multiply by propagation rather than by simple division were almost certainly bisexual, each individual combining the organs of both sexes within his own body: in the higher forms each containing both a functional testis and ovary. Perhaps when God planned the organic world, of which man was to be a working member, He introduced this mode of multiplication in anticipation of the time when man should be likewise created bisexual for reasons already intimated.

     pg.20 of 20   

Copyright © 1988 Evelyn White. All rights reserved

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