LONGEVITY IN ANTIQUITY:
AND ITS BEARING ON CHRONOLOGY
really 969 years old when he died? Did the patriarchs live for
centuries as the Bible says? Even records of antiquity speak
of extraordinary long life. Are they not more myth than truth?
How reliable is the biblical record?
THE NATURE OF THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT
Nowadays this story of Eve
giving an apple to Adam is regarded as a myth, or allegory. But
let us suppose that Adam and Eve are real people in a real Garden
with real trees ‹ just as Genesis 2:15-17 says. And let us
suppose that God warned them not to eat the fruit from
one particular tree because "in the day you eat of it you
shall surely die". And let us suppose that Eve did
eat the fruit and gave to Adam who also ate it. And they discovered
they were naked!
IF ADAM HAD NOT DIED
one of the Immortals who could have lived on and on without ever
experiencing death? An indication of what God had in mind can
be gleaned from what happened to the Second Adam on the Mount
|Chapter 1. Virgin Birth|
|Chapter 2. Incarnation|
|Chapter 3. Rebirth and Incarnation Anew|
|Appendix: Mind-less: Yet Alive|
This Paper is not
an attempt to explain the Trinity: this is taken as a fact. It
is about the Incarnation, and the wonder of the Incarnation lies
in the identity of Jesus.
If Jesus Christ was merely a perfect Man and no more, his sacrifice could be applied vicariously to only one person. But because the Lord Jesus Christ was God-made-man, his sacrifice was sufficient for ALL men. When God the Son died for our sakes, God the Father raised Him from the dead. If there had not been at least one other Lord in Heaven when the Lord on earth died, the Universe would have come to an end.
And what was God the Son doing before the Incarnation? The King James Version has adopted a method of translation of the Hebrew which informs us which Person of the Trinity is actually speaking or working. Thus the One we know so well by his activities and words in the Gospels can be just as familiar to us throughout the Old Testament.
Preface Introduction Chapter 1. The Significance of the Pronoun "Us" in the Old Testament Chapter 2. The Use of the Term "Lord" for the Trinity in the New Testament Chapter 3. The Appearance of the Lord Jesus in the Old Testament Chapter 4. The Evidence of Two Persons in the Old Testament Chapter 5. Jesus as Jehovah Chapter 6. The "Angel of the Lord" and the "Voice of the Lord" Chapter 7. Specific Old Testament References to the Trinity Chapter 8. Some Conclusions Appendixes
And the Lord God formed
man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils
the breath of life, and man became a living soul (Genesis
2:7). What a simple statement! But the implications are
profound, dealing with two thorny issues: the nature and
the time of personhood.
Human nature, then, is composed of dust, the material (or physical) and breath, the non-material (or spiritual). In Scripture we find two words for the non-material: spirit and soul. Are they synonymous? If not, then what is the soul? This Paper is a study of the precise meaning of these two words in Scripture.
From Genesis 2:7 is is clear that personhood results when the material and non-material are fused. There is little agreement as to when this occurs in Adam's descendants. The crucial test of any answer must be, ultimately, the Incarnation ‹ that tremendous moment in the history of the Universe when the Lord of glory came down and entered that little body so "perfectly prepared" (Hebrews 10:5) and the "Word became flesh and dwelt among us".
|Chapter 1. The Spirit and the Body|
|Chapter 2. The Emergence of the Soul|
|Chapter 3. Some Problems|
|Chapter 4. A Crucial Test|
This Paper discussess
the Lord's death not as a theological event but as a biological
event. For his death was without parallel in the whole of human
history. Without question He died ON the Cross. But did He die
as a consequence of being crucified? Though He may have died
with a ruptured heart, even this was not the cause of his death.
Jesus died sooner than expected.
He did not merely choose the time of dying -- as we can do: He chose TO DIE! He simply dismissed his life (John 19:30). He laid down his life and no man took it from Him (so emphatically stated in John 10:15, 17,18). Of all forms of capital punishment employed by the Romans, crucifixion alone was capable of providing the essential setting in which this unique event could be realized.
It is the HOW ‹ not the WHY ‹ of the Lord's death that is of interest in this Paper.
|Chapter 1. Did the Lord Really Die on the Cross?|
|Chapter 2. Did the Lord Die of Heart Rupture?|
|Chapter 3. The Ultimate Mystery of the Lord's Death|
The really surprising,
and incredible, element of the Gospel message is not so much
the sacrifice ‹ for the concept of sacrifice is commn to
all human idealism the world over ‹ but the resurrection!
Do not misunderstand: without the sacrifice there could be no
salvation for man. Nevertheless, without the resurrection the
sacrifice would be ineffective. And this is true for three reasons.
Do you know the historical reason for the necessity of the resurrection? Or the theological reason which required Jesus' bodily resurrection? Or in what ways your salvation now depends upon his resurrection? Is it possible that by an over-emphasis on the crucfixion and the neglect of the resurrection, we are actually distorting the truth?
|Chapter 1. The Historical Aspect of the Resurrection|
|Chapter 2. The Theological Aspect of the Resurrection|
|Chapter 3. The Experiential Aspect of the Resurrection|
This Paper touches upon that most imporant of questions, How are we to define true 'humanity' ‹ what is the precise definition of Man? Now Adam sums up in himself all of humanity. Yet the Bible speaks of two men, and only two, both of whom are called Adam ‹ as if all the rest of mankind are less than Man, in need of redemption to regain true manhood. A study of the unique relationship between these two men, the First and the Last Adam, shows what God had to do in order to provide a salvation that restores us to true manhood.
|Chapter 1. The Body of the First Adam and the Last Adam|
|Chapter 2. The Character of the First Adam and the Last Adam|
|Chapter 3. Exploring Further Inferences|
1976 published by Zondervan Publishing Co.
1997 published online
2001 2nd Online Edition corrected, edited and re-formatted
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