Part I: The Extent of the Flood
IT WOULD NOT
be proper to omit from this paper all reference to the so-called
Flood Geology, in spite of the fact that in some quarters the
term is almost a "naughty word." Flood Geology is by
some people classed with such fancies as the Flat Earth theory.
But this is not altogether fair because the Flat Earth theory,
now that the South Pole has been crossed, is totally indefensible,
whereas the same kind of absolute disproof of Flood Geology may
not yet have appeared. There are a number of variant forms in
which Flood Geology is presented, but essentially this is what
is believed to have taken place.
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At the time of the Flood, which
was world-wide, great tidal waves swept back and forth week after
week laying and relaying all the loose materials on the earth's
surface in a series of layers in which were embedded the animals
and plant life representative of each area.
In the course of time these layers
became hardened by pressure and heat until they took the solid
form in which they are now found.
Consequently, there are no great
geological ages separating these layers. They were laid in rapid
succession, and the living forms which were buried in them from
the trilobites to the dinosaurs were contemporary with one another.
These creatures had therefore inhabited the earth together during
the interval between Adam and Noah.
Part of the evidence said by its
advocates to support this is the existence of a number of animal
cemeteries in which are found indiscriminately mixed together
in a tangled mass the bones of innumerable animals of different
species. In all such cemeteries it is evident that the animals
perished suddenly and
simultaneously. Carnivorous and herbivorous species lie together,
the latter showing no signs of their bones having been gnawed
by the former, so that their deaths were presumably simultaneous.
Moreover, the bones are so completely
and forcibly mixed together that the destruction was evidently
A water catastrophe best accounts
for these cemeteries. Animal bones of various species from very
different climatic conditions are found where such creatures
no longer exist. This is clearly due to a change in climate occurring
at the time of, or soon after, their destruction.
Another line of evidence is believed
to exist in the fact that the rocks are found in reverse order
over considerable areas in certain parts of the world. Those
rocks which evolutionary geology designates as most ancient lie
above rather than beneath those which are designated as recent.
Orthodox geology accounts for this fact by the overturning of
sections of the earth's crust on a gigantic scale. Flood Geologists
reject this explanation.
A few years ago, I attended a conference
of Christian scientific men in which the subject of Flood Geology
was raised. It occurred to me that this question of upside down
rocks could be settled very easily if they were examined carefully
to see whether certain fossils which are normally fossilized
feet down, as it were, in these rocks were fossilized feet up.
If the latter were the case, then clearly the rocks have been
turned upside down and the orthodox explanation of the reversed
strata is valid. But if not, then the strata really were laid
in the wrong order, and modern geology would have to do a lot
of rethinking. I asked if the animals were found upside down.
Those present did not take the question seriously. Yet it is
obvious that this should be looked into and would be worth doing
so, even if a research fund were necessary, because it would
settle the issue once for all.
A book has been published by Martin
Gardner entitled Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science
in which the author claims that this question of upside down
fossil forms has in fact been investigated and the evidence sustains
modern geological theory. (33) I'm not sure how true
33. Gardner, Martin, Fads and Fallacies
in the Name of Science, Dover Publications, New York. 1957.,
this is -- that is to
say, whether the upside-downness of the fossils is found in every
locality where the strata are reversed. It could be true of some
-- but if it is not true in one single instance, the case is
* * * *
In order that the reader may pursue
this point of view for himself, the short bibliography which
follows lists some of the works of a serious nature which support
Flood Geology, including one by George McCready Price, who is
probably its best-known protagonist.
1. Flood Geology
Clark, Harold W., The New Diluvialism,
Science Publications, California, 1946, illustrated, full documentation,
index, 222 pp.
Gillispie, Charles C., Genesis and Geology,
Harper Torchbooks, New York, 1951. Useful as a historical
background study of Diluvialism.
Morris, Henry and J. C. Whitcomb, The Genesis
Flood, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1961, 518 pp.
Nelson, Byron C., The Deluge Story in Stone,
Augsburg, Minneapolis, 1931, 190 pp., illustrated, list of
Price, George McCready, Common-Sense
Geology, Pacific Press, Mountain View, Calif., 1946, 239
Rehwinkel, Alfred M., The Flood, Concordia,
St. Louis, 1951, 372 pp., illustration, full documentation, index.
Young, Davis A., Creation and the Flood,
Baker, Grand Rapids, 1977. A critique of Flood Geology which
presents a reasoned but by no means new alternative in which
the days of Genesis are read as ages. Continental Drift is felt
to be fatal to Flood Geology.
2. Older Works of
Dawson, Sir J. W., The Historical Deluge,
Religious Tract Society, London, 1892, 56 pp.
Edersheim, Alfred, The World Before the
Flood, Religious Tract Society, London, undated, 190 pp.
Miller, Hugh, The Testimony of the Rocks,
Shepherd and Elliot, Edinburgh, 1857, pp. 267-350, illustrated.
3. Transactions of the Victoria Institute
Le Riche, Philip J., "Scientific Proofs
of a Universal Deluge," vol. 61, 1929, p.86-117.
Molony, F H., "The Noachian Deluge and
Its Probable Connection with Lake Van," vol. 68, 1936, p.43-65.
Prestwick, Joseph, "A Possible Cause
for the Origin of the Traditions of the Flood," vol. 27,
4. On the Ark
Bailey, Lloyd R., "Wood From 'Mount Ararat':
Noah's Ark?" in Biblical Archaeologist, vol.40,
December, 1977, p.137ff. A useful scholarly critique of popular
claims regarding the "beam" found by
Shea, William H., "The Ark-Shaped Formation
in the Tendurek Mountains of Eastern Turkey," in Creation
Research Society, September, 1976, pp.97-98. An excellent
article with some superb photographs of the ark-shaped earth
and rock formation that has frequently been presented as remains
of the ark.
Tinder, Donald, "Whatever Happened to
Noah's Ark?" in Christianity Today, 3 June, 1977,
p.26. A useful and sober review bibliography of several volumes
on the subject.
Copyright © 1988 Evelyn White. All rights
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