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Part V: Is Man An Animal?
The Erectness of
IT HAS often been said that man's
hands are an extension of his mind. When we come to deal with
speech we shall see that this is profoundly true. In the meantime,
let us consider the fact that his hands are what they are anatomically,
and serve the purposes they serve culturally, because of man's
erect posture. And here, again, it would be easy to suppose that
his erectness is not essentially different from that of a number
of other creatures, except that he retains it as a normal posture,
whereas animals adopt it only for short intervals. The situation
is, however, more complex than this, with many factors being
involved -- among which are the structure of his feet, the structure
of his spinal column and pelvis, the relative proportional length
of his limbs, the structure of his neck, and even the configuration
of his windpipe and voice box.
an attempt to minimize the significance of man's erectness, it
is well known that Thomas Huxley falsified a diagram in which
he showed four skeletons, three of the primates of increasing
size standing in line behind a skeleton of a man. (58)
His object was to indicate that man was not the only creature
who could stand upright. But in order to emphasize his point,
he posed the animal skeletons in an unnaturally upright position
� as Weidenreich points out, a position which is not at all
characteristic of them � whereas man was put in an equally
unnatural position with slightly bent knees (Fig.13a). Although
some of the primates do maintain an upright position for a short
time, it is generally held that no animals (other than birds)
remain erect for more than a total of 25 percent of their waking
life, and this 25 percent is made up, for the most part, of brief
interludes lasting only a few minutes at any one time. And the
58. Huxley, Thomas: see Franz
Weidenreich, Apes, Giants, and Man, University of Chicago Press,
1948, p.6; and for Huxley's Epilogue, see Dawn,
September. 1931, p.267.
Fig. 13a. Thomas Huxley's
13b. The true posture of man and ape
Fig. 14. The human and ape "foot"
pg.2 of 16
stoop forward even when erect (Fig.13b), whereas man is truly
A great deal more is involved in
sustained erect posture than merely a decision to stand up. Animals
which are forced to remain in an upright position for an undue
length of time may lose consciousness. The classical experiments
on this were carried out by Leonard Hill in 1895. (60)
Or, if they do not actually faint due to the fact that their
circulatory mechanisms are not adjusted for this kind of change,
then they very quickly become fatigued and will fight to regain
a normal horizontal position. F. G. Parsons, (61) writing
in the Encyclopedia Britannica observed, "There is
a greater gap between the musculature of man and that of the
other primates than there is between many different orders, and
this is usually traceable either directly or indirectly to the
assumption of the erect posture." But in his Descent
of Man, Darwin did not appreciate this. (62) To him
the change from quadrupedal to bipedal gait presented no difficulty.
He wrote, "We see . . . in existing monkeys a manner of
progression intermediate between that of a quadruped to a biped."
What Darwin was not giving adequate recognition to is the fact
that the other primates do not actually have feet to walk
on. They walk on their hands. As we have already noted, animals
have either four hands or four feet, a fact which gave rise to
the older term quadrumana, as opposed to quadruped.
The feet of the apes are very poor feet: they are really
hands, with opposable thumbs and quite capable of grasping. Man's
feet are very different in structure, so different in fact that
Dudley J. Morton, in a paper "Human Origin," observed:
far as my own studies would enable me to judge, I endorse Wood
Jones' statement to the effect that "if missing links
are to be traced with complete success, the feet, far more
than the skull or the teeth or the shins, will mark them as monkey
As will be seen in Fig. 14, the foot
of man and of the orangutan (which was given its name because
it looked so much like an old man) are quite different in outline,
and -- which is even more important -- quite different in their
anatomical structure (see also Fig.15) . In man the great toe
is bound in by a ligament to the other four toes. In the apes
the four toes are bound together, but the big toe is strictly
a thumb. Moreover, with respect to maintaining an erect
59. Schultz, Adolph, "The
Specialization of Man and His Place Among the Catarrhine Primates",
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Qualitative Biology, vol.15,
60. Hill, Leonard: reported in Journal of Physiology, vol.18,
London, 1895, p.15f.
61. Parsons, F. G., in Encyclopedia Britanica, 1953 edition,
vol. 15, p.990.
62. Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man, Merrill &
Baker, New York, revised edition 1874, p.59.
63. Morton, Dudley, American Journal of Physical Anthropology,
vol.10, 1927, p.195.
pg.4 of 16
The plantar aspect of the ape and human foot, the former belonging
to an adult orangutan, and the latter to a nine-year-old girl.
Over-simplified diagram of the ape and human foot, showing the
difference in transverse metatarsal ligament. After Wood Jones,
Man's Place Among the Mammals (Fig. 147).
at rest, it is important to notice that there is an arrangement
of muscle associated with the linear aspera in the human
lower limb by which, in conjunction with a special knee joint,
man is able to lock his leg in a permanently straight position,
more or less restfully. The ape's lower limb does not have this
feature and must therefore maintain truly erect posture only
by considerable muscular effort. S. L. Washburn, in a paper entitled
"Analysis of Primate Evolution," remarked, "Changes
from a foot of such a sort (as the ape foot) to the human foot
would not involve any major evolutionary changes. After all,
the joining of the first metatarsal to the second by a ligament
may well account for a great many of the features which differentiate
the foot of men and apes." (64) It seems
to me that this is naive, for a "thumb" such as we
see in Fig. 16 to be suddenly bound by an entirely new structure
to the rest of the toes, thus converting a hand into a foot,
is just as difficult to imagine occurring by a series of stages
as any other of the major evolutionary changes which the same
writer would undoubtedly admit � for example, the balancing
of the head on the shoulders in man. It is a completely transforming
change with tremendous cultural significance for man, for it
allows him to be completely free to use his hands for manipulative
rather than balancing or locomotive purposes. The contact of
the two feet with the ground is entirely different.
In this connection, Vallois wrote:
of the existence of some transitional grades of structure observed
in certain monkeys and man, all these characters are practically
so definite that there can be absolutely no confusion between
the most highly developed of living monkeys and the lowest of
The genuine importance of erectness
of posture for man is witnessed by the almost desperate effort
on the part of physical anthropologists, such as Le Gros Clark,
to prove that hominoid forms such as the Australopithecines actually
walked erect. The controversy over this question has raged for
twenty years. And, to my mind, the greatest antagonist to the
idea, Sir Solly Zuckerman, has also been the most thorough in
his analysis of the data . (66) In paper after paper he has shown,
simply by the presentation of factual data,
64. Washburn, S. L., "Analysis
of Primate Evolution," in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia
on Quantitative Biology, vol.15, 1951, p.72.
65. Boule, Marcellin and Henri V. Vallois, Fossil Man, translated
by M. Bullock, Dryden Press New York, 1957, p.76.
66. Zuckerman, Sir Solly, "An Ape or The Ape,
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol.81 (parts
I and II), 1952, pp.57-68: with an adequate bibliography of W.
E. Le Gros Clark's papers on the subject.
Le Gros Clark and those who have followed him are guilty of wishful
thinking. The very title of one of Zuckerman's papers on the
subject, "Myths and Methods in Anatomy," is an indication
of what he feels about Clark's interpretation of the data. (67)
of Zuckerman's strongest arguments is the analysis which he made
of the relative position of the foramen magnum in the
Australopithecines skulls which are complete enough to allow
for its location. For the non-expert, Fig. 17 will show how this
point of connection between the spinal column and the base of
the skull is found to be increasingly more forward, i.e., more
centrally located, as one moves from the dog (A), to the chimpanzee
(B), to man (C). The Australopithecines show a foramen position
which is essentially ape-like as in (B). Moreover, careful measurements
show that the plane in which this opening lies faces toward the
back in the Australopithecines but toward the front in man, a
fact which shows that the spinal column meets the ape skull from
slightly behind (see Fig. 18). But it meets the human skull from
slightly forward by taking a curve in the neck or cervical region,
which is not found in the apes, but which contributes to the
flexibility of the human neck. This fact relates to the difference
in configuration between man's spinal column and that of all
other animals below him. Fig. 19 shows that man's spinal column
is complex, compounded of several curves reversed; the ape spinal
column is either almost a straight line or a simple backward
curve as shown. As we have noted in the first chapter, this compound
form allows man to assume a restful condition in a remarkably
wide variety of physical postures. He can sit, stand, and lie
in an almost infinite number of ways and maintain these positions
for a remarkable length of time, a fact which has great importance
to man as a culture-bound creature.
In any case, the Australopithecines
are no longer considered as ancestral to man, and the possibility
that they actually achieved any culture is felt by many authorities
to be very slim indeed. The finding of flint weapons of a very
crude kind with their remains is equivocal, for archaeologists
have actually found pieces of pottery among the bones of some
extinct lemurs, perhaps the very pots they were cooked in --
but hardly the handiwork of the lemurs themselves. Since we know
that the hunter may leave some at least of his weapons beside
his prey, the Australopithecine apes may have been the prey of
truly human hunters in view of the fact that even by conventional
67. Zuckerman, Sir Solly,
"Myths and Methods in Anatomy", Struthers Lecture,
Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, vol.11,
1965, pp.87-114; the basis of his chapter, "The African
Cousins" in Beyond the Ivory Tower: THe Fortress of Public
and Private Science, Taplinger Publishing Co., New York,
pg.6 of 16
Basal aspect of skull of dog (A), chimpanzee (B). and man (C).
The darkened area is the opening into the skull termed the "foramen
magnum." In man it is almost centrally located, the spinal
column thus balancing the head with least stress in a vertical
A companion drawing to Fig. 17, showing how the spinal column
supports the skull in man, ape, and dog.
Fig. 19. The data given are from actual measurements.
(From lectures of Prof. George Huntington.)
evolutionary standards of
dating they were probably contemporary. (68)
with the determination to find some intermediary creature between
the apes and man that walked with a stoop was responsible for
the tremendous number of reconstructions of Neanderthal Man,
which are still to be found in popular and serious books and
museums. In these he is shown brutelike, slouched, and often
(appropriately, of course) hairy and carrying a club. It is a
curious fact of history that the first Neanderthal man to have
been discovered did, indeed, walk with a stoop. Later on other
Neanderthal specimens were found who walked as completely erect
as modern man does. The first of these was reported in 1939 in
Science under the name of Sergio Sergi. (69) Since
then, more careful examination
68. The Living World of
Animals, edited by L. Harrison Matthews, Reader's Digest
Publication, London, 1970, p.214.
pg.8 of 16
69. Sergi, Sergio, Science, vol.90, supplement, 4 Aug.,
bones of the first Neanderthal has revealed that he was a pathological
specimen, afflicted with osteoarthritis, which forced him to
walk with a stoop. (70) But because Neanderthal Man was thought
to be a kind of missing link and because in the popular mind
he is still looked upon in this guise, even the best scholars
yield to the temptation to picture him in this way. Carl 0. Dunbar,
in his 1966 edition of an oft quoted Historical Geology,
has a full page illustration of "old man Neanderthal"
with a note reading: "Note the slouched posture and compare
with Fig.386." (71) Fig.386 reinforces the slouch by
being juxtaposed to a skeleton of modern man. Concession is made
to the reader, however, as follows:
Neanderthals stood upright, their carriage was more like that
of a great ape than that of living man, because the spine lacked
the fourth or cervical curvature and the thigh bones were sigmoidally
curved in compensation.
That healthy Neanderthals maintained
a truly erect posture is now almost universally accepted by physical
anthropologists. Moreover, Neanderthal Man is sometimes found
in association, as contemporary, with modern man. And sometimes
modern man is even found preceding Neanderthal Man at the same
view of the tremendous importance of his truly erect posture
to man as both a culture-creating being and a creature with spiritual
aspirations, a word needs to be said about the claim which is
often made that he achieved his erectness by an evolutionary
process which is still incomplete, and that he suffers considerably,
physiologically speaking, as a consequence of this incomplete
process of development.
my mind, the most thorough single paper on this question was
written by F. A. Hallebrandt and E. B. Franseen, entitled "Physiological
Study of the Vertical Stance in Man." (74) The following
brief extracts will give a useful summary of this paper that
runs into some thirty-six pages. The authors stated in introducing
their subject: (75)
papers in the current literature on posture indicate that
70. Neanderthal Man and osteoarthritis:
C. S. Coon, The Story of Man, Knopf, New York, 1962, 2nd
edition, revised, p.40
71. Dunbar, Carl O., Historical Geology, Wiley, New York,
1966, 2nd edition, p.450.
72. Ibid., p.449.
73. Neanderthal Man preceded by modern man, notably in the finds
at Fontechevade: G. W. Lasker, Evolution of Man, Holt,
Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1961, pp.118, 119.
74. Hallebrandt, F. A., and Franseen, E. B., "Physiological
Study of the Vertical Stance in Man," Physiology Review,
vol.22-23, 1943, p.220-225.
75. Ibid., p.221.
may result ultimately in a variety of malfunctions including
lessened respiratory efficiency, prolapse of the abdominal viscera,
impairment of digestion, pressure and derangement of the pelvic
organs, dysmenorrhea, haemorrhoids, varicose veins, constipation,
cyclic vomiting, foot strain, backache, neuritis, and arthritis.
Barring orthopedic disabilities, few of the etiologic associations
are based on demonstrable fact. . . .
their first enunciation these now firmly entrenched concepts
have been questioned. Many observations throw doubt on their
The authors then proceeded to examine
the evidence pro and con for each of these supposed consequences
of man's having adopted a supposedly unnatural animal posture.
That some of these ailments result from minor skeletal malalignments
they found difficult to believe on the basis of evidence as tenuous
as that usually presented. (76)
then give some thought to the question of the supposed increase
in energy cost which is assumed to be involved in maintaining
a vertical position. Figures are given for the actual increase
in oxygen consumption when a test subject changes from a horizontal
to a vertical position and their conclusion was that the cost
is very small indeed: "From this point of view, normal standing
on both legs is almost effortless" [my emphasis]
(77) In summing up this aspect of the study they said,"
Standing is cheap in terms of metabolic cost . . . . The remarkable
indefatigability of relaxed standing has not been fully explained."
(78) Perhaps the explanation is that God made us this
way. . . .
with regard to circulation, some rather surprising findings have
been reported, including the fact that stroke volume is significantly
reduced in the vertical stance but heart rate increases, thus
compensating for the reduced venous return flow from the lower
extremities due to gravitational effects. (79)
authors reported extensive evidence that both erect posture and
prolonged recumbance are equally conducive to the formation
of kidney stones, so it cannot be argued that man's excretory
system has been upset by a presumed subsequent assumption of
erectness. And provided that free postural sway is allowed, gastric
secretory curves are indistinguishable in the vertical body from
those in recumbancy. (80)
76. Ibid., p.223.
pg.10 of 16
77. Ibid., p.231.
78. Ibid., p.248.
79. Ibid., pp.232,234.
80. Ibid., p.237.
Although in an erect posture man finds
himself at a disadvantage in terms of gravity, since the base
upon which he stands is quite small, yet apparently compensatory
mechanisms of various kinds automatically cancel mechanical disadvantages
of the vertical position, so that gravitational stresses are
counteracted easily in the majority of normal men. (81)
The phenomenon of standing is elaborately protected by a multiplicity
of cooperating reflexes.
think it is also worth noting in passing that a careful study
of factors involved in the size of man, made by F. W.
Went, lead him to the conclusion that man is actually the tallest
creature which could reasonably walk upright on two legs. (82)
Any creature larger would be in grave danger of upset, with serious
consequences to himself. A man approximately six feet tall, if
he trips, will have a kinetic energy upon hitting the ground
of anywhere from twenty to one hundred times greater than a small
child learning to walk. If a man were twice as tall as he is
now, his kinetic danger in falling would be so great (thirty-two
times greater than it now is) that it would not be safe for him
to walk upright at all. Larger animals can become taller because
they are more stable on their four legs. Interestingly enough,
Went also showed that if man were much smaller, his cultural
attainments would have been tremendously limited due to his greatly
reduced striking power as a craftsman. His analysis of the total
situation suggests that man is, indeed, "an optimum size."
consequences of man's orthopedic capabilities are tremendous.
Some of them are very obvious. Some of them are not so obvious
but are, if anything, even more important. The importance of
the freedom of his hands needs little labouring, though we shall
explore this further in dealing with man as a creator of culture,
in which his hands become in a very real sense an extension of
his mind. Sir Charles Bell wrote eloquently about the refinements
and the potential of the human hand. (83)
(in the hand) the consummation of all perfection as an instrument.
This, we perceive, consists in its power, which is a combination
of strength with variety and extent of motion; we see it in the
forms, relations, and sensibility of the fingers and thumb; in
the provisions for holding, pulling, spinning, weaving, and constructing;
properties which may be found in other animals but which are
combined here to form this most perfect instrument.
Bell might have mentioned such complex
exercises as those involved
81. Ibid., p.247.
82. Went, F. W., "The Size of Man," American Scientist,
vol.56, no.4, 1968, p.400-413.
83. Bell, Sir Charles, The Hand: Its Mechanism and Visual
Endowments As Evincing Design, Bridgewater Treatises,
4th treatise, Pickering, London, 1837 [unable to locate the exact
at high speed or, even more remarkably, in playing the piano.
The close association between mind and hand in both is evident
from the fact that skill enables the individual to forget about
the hands entirely. You will know, if you type by touch, that
one will have no immediate picture, in reflection, of the actual
position of letters on the keyboard. One has to "discover"
them, as it were, in one's imagination if one is not in the presence
of a typewriter by acting as though one were typing a word, and
if a typographical error is made, it may be several words on
before some subconscious part of the mind signals to one that
an error has been made. The message passes straight from the
copy to the typescript through the mind and the fingers as though
mind and hand were really a single transfer channel. This nervous
connection, which accompanies the liberation of the hands by
reason of man's erectness, has been recognized as one of the
most important aspects in the total situation. William L. Straus
has said: (84)
studies of posture and locomotion -- whether bipedal, bimanual,
or quadrupedal -- must necessarily be physiological as well as
anatomical. Too often have posture and locomotion been thought
of in terms of skeleton and muscle alone. Yet these are essentially
effector organs, for it has been clearly demonstrated that the
central nervous system is the prime controlling agent.
In the first chapter we listed, among
other things, man's possession of truly opposable thumbs combined
with wide-angle stereoscopic vision. The point has often been
remarked upon by others. Sir Solly Zuckerman, in an article dealing
with man's social evolution, wrote: (85)
to many authorities, the one unique character which was most
prominently concerned in our prehuman development, and without
which we should not have evolved to the human level, is our dual
possession of stereovision and fully opposable thumbs. This combination
exists in no other animal.
Kenneth Oakley underscores the combined
effect of these two features: (86)
much of his skill to his visual powers, and yet apes and many
monkeys have eyes capable of refined stereoscopic and colour
vision. Man is, however, psychologically distinguished by his
capacity for close visual attention
84. Straus, William L., "Primates,"
in Anthropology Today, edited by A. L. Kroeber, University
of Chicago Press, 1953, p.83.
pg.12 of 16
85. Zuckerman, Sir Solly, "The influence of hormones on
man's social evolution." Endeavour, April, 1944,
86. Oakley, Kenneth P., "Skill as a Human Possession,"
in A History of Technology, edited by Charles Singer,
E. J. Holmyard and A. R. Hall, Oxford University Press, 1954,
and for prolonged
co-ordination of eye and hand [my emphasis].
reflections of cerebral rather than ocular functions. Convergence
of the eyes upon handwork is largely dependent upon conscious
concentration -- in other words, it is under the control of the
cortical motor areas, which act in response to coordinated impulses
from the eyes.
It has been
reported that chimpanzees can learn to use their hands under
the direction of their eyes for long enough to thread a needle,
but in general the attention that an ape can give to manipulating
an object is very fleeting. Furthermore, the erect posture of
man, and the fact that his skull is poised above the top of his
spine instead of being slung in a forwardly projecting manner
as in apes, make it easier for him to pay close attention to
any point over a wide field of vision.
It is not without significance that
among the very earliest artifacts of man are to be found needles
of quite refined design (see Fig.20), and Genesis 3:7 indicates
that the very first cultural activity of man after the Fall was
to sew clothing for himself.
One of the less well recognized
results of truly erect posture in man is its effect upon his
powers of communication. The neck structure allows a certain
configuration of the windpipe and vocal organs which permits
men to talk easily to one another while maintaining the natural
and normal position of the head. Both speaking and singing are
possible for man without any such straightening out of the head
and neck as must occur in other animals when they give voice.
(87) One only has to observe the mooing of a cow, or the
howling of a dog to realize that considerable change of head
position from the normal is required before they can vocalize.
Adolph Schultz, in a paper entitled "The Physical Distinctions
of Man," remarked upon the fact that the human head does
not have a position relative to the spine similar to that in
all non-human primates: "The profound phylogenetic change
in this relation between head and spine in man can be understood
only as an ontogenetic specialization. . . ." (88)
I would omit the word only. After all, this is surely
the way God made man in the first place, for very good reasons.
In passing, it might be noted that the other class of animals
which maintain a normal erect posture, namely, the birds, can
also sing without changing their head position.
the refined jaw structure of man may also contribute to his ability
to speak. In the apes (as in man) the chief stress placed upon
the bone structure of the jaw in chewing hard substances or cracking
nuts on one side of the mouth only is concentrated at the chin.
The very powerful jaw muscles in the gorilla are
87. Kahn, Fritz, Man in
Structure and Function, Knopf, New York, 1960, vol.1, p.73.
88. Schultz, Adolph "The Physical Distinctions of Man,"
American Philosophical Society Proceedings, vol.94, 1950,
Some bone needles found by Karl Absalon at Vestonice, Moravia
"dated" 30,000 years old.
The so-called simian shelf in the ape jaw, contrasted with the
met with a corresponding mechanical
strengthening of the jaw at the crucial point of stress by a
"flange" of bone which penetrates inwards as shown
in Fig. 21. It is widely accepted that this so-called simian
shelf, and it is found I believe in all the apes, has the effect
of considerably reducing the freedom of movement of the primate
animal tongue by restricting the area available for muscles.
(89) The number of sounds which the apes can make is therefore
more restricted than in man. In a paper on cultural evolution,
Julian H. Steward, while agreeing that the origin of language
is still quite unexplained, nevertheless saw it as significant
that man is capable of speech thanks to the speech and
auditory centres of his brain, but also "thanks to his jaw
and tongue structure." (90) This is no doubt true, but the evidence
is not altogether unequivocal, as will be seen above.
The same need for strengthening
exists, of course, on the human jaw but in this case the flange
projects outward instead, leading to the characteristic formation
of the human chin, thus allowing considerably more freedom for
the tongue. Man's powers of vocalization
89. Howells, William, Mankind
So Far, Doubleday, New York, 1944, pp.78,79.
pg.14 of 16
90. Steward, Julian H., "Cultural Evolution," Scientific
American, May. 1956, p.72.
as a consequence, far greater than in the primates, and he makes
full use of this capacity both to share his ideas and to express
has been argued that by balancing the head on top of the vertical
column, optimum conditions exist for removing waste products
of metabolic activity in this most important area. It is also
customary to equate the enlargement of the brain with the assumption
of erect posture in man. While I am personally persuaded that
God made man upright in the first place, I think it is not at
all unlikely that in some way to be yet clearly demonstrated,
the size and complexity of man's brain is related to the position
of that organ with respect to the rest of his body. S. W. Britton,
reflecting the evolutionary view of man's supposed biological
history, wrote: (91)
stands erect with little or no functional disturbance . . . contemporaneous
with development of orthograde progression, the human brain showed
its greatest growth and differentiation. The force of gravity
exerted linearly through the body significantly influenced conformation
balanced arterial reactions, better oxygenation, and enhanced
venous removal of metabolic products became possible in the head
end. Special sensory and cerebral mechanisms have probably benefitted,
particularly through improved circulatory conditions.
The erectness of man is therefore
of tremendous importance as an extension of his mental capacities
and to give those mental capacities freedom of expression.
seems also that man is a creature who, by habit, in a way "looks
up," and he does this to an extent that few if any other
animals do. Their vision seems bent upon the ground; man's is
directed otherwise. It is as though his very structure is a reflection
of the fact that his spirit "goeth upward,"
whereas the spirit of the beast "goeth downward to the earth"
(Ecclesiastes 3:21) . His very physical posture itself in some
way corresponds to his spiritual nature. Man was truly upright
as God made him (Ecclesiastes 7:29), but in the end he becomes
bowed down (Psalm 37:3,6), with the weight both of years and
sin. The Lord encouraged His people to "straighten up"
as they saw the day of their redemption approaching (Luke 21
:28), for such is the meaning of the original, as though the
very position of the body could symbolize the posture of the
soul � as indeed it does!
is perhaps significant that in grief, sorrow, and crying, man
tends to double forward, using muscles which bow him down; but
in joy and laughter and praise, he straightens up, indeed even
91. Britton, S. W., Science,
vol.11, 1950, p.445; under Abstracts of the National Academy
backwards, using muscles which more than straighten him up. His
very worship, as John R. Howitt pointed out, bows him before
his Creator in contrition, but then leads him to lift up his
head in praise. (92)
92. Howitt, J. R., "Man
the Upright," Creation Research Society Annual, 1968,
pg.16 of 16
Copyright © 1988 Evelyn White. All rights
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