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Table of Contents



  Chapter  1
  Chapter  2
  Chapter  3
  Chapter  4
  Chapter  5
  Chapter  6

  Appendix I
  Appendix II
  Appendix III
  Appendix IV
  Appendix V
  Appendix VI
  Appendix VII
  Appendix VIII
  Appendix IX
  Appendix X
  Appendix XI
  Appendix XII
  Appendix XIII
  Appendix XIV
  Appendix XV
  Appendix XVI
  Appendix XVII
  Appendix XVIII
  Appendix XIX
  Appendix XX
  Appendix XXI

  Biblical References

General Bibliography






(Reference: p.92)


Some Instances where Hayah is Translated “became” in

spite of the Absence of Lamedh Following.



Gen. 3.20:    "Because she be came the mother of every living per-

  son" (Berkeley).

Gen. 9.15:    "The water shall no more become a flood to destroy

 the earth" (AV).

Gen. 12.10:   "And there became a famine in the Land" (LXX).

Gen. 15.5:    "So shall thy seed become" (AV).

Gen. 27.23:   "His hands had become hairy like the hands of his

  brother Esau" (BDB).

Gen. 34.15:   "If ye will become as we are" (LXX).

Gen. 38. 7:    "Judah's firstborn became wicked in the sight of the

  Lord" (BDB: LXX).

Gen. 47.20:   "And the land became Pharaoh's" (LXX).

Gen. 48.19:   ".... and his seed shall become a multitude of nat-

 ions" (AV).

Gen. 49.17:   "Dan shall become a serpent in the way" (LXX).

Gen. 50.9:    "And it became a very great company (LXX).

Exod.7.19:   "that they may become...." (A V: RSV).

Exod.23.29: "Lest the earth become desolate... ."(AV).

Exod.36.13: "and so it became one tabernacle" (AV).

Jud.11.39:   "And it became a custom in Israel" (AV).

II Sam.8.14: ""And all they of Edom became David's servants" (AV).

II Ki.17.3:   "Shalmanezer (came up).... and Hoshea became his


Ezek.35.4:   "Thou shalt become a desolation" (RSV).

Micah 2.11:  "He shall become a prophet of this people" (BDB).

The following further references will also be found in the Versions


Revised Version.

Gen. 2.10                       Exod. 8.17 (2x)

3.22                                 9.10

19.26                             23.29

21.20                             36.13

37.20                      Jud. 15.14


pg 1 of 3      

I Sam.   16.21                  Exod.      9.10

18.29                  Lev.      13.24

28.16                  Deut.      33.5

I Ki.      11.24                  Josh.       9.21

13.6, 33                  Jud.      11.39

II Ki.       24.1                              15.14

I Chron.   18.2                 I Sam.   14.15

  18.6                               16.21

 18.13                 I Ki.          1.4

Psa.         69.8                              13.16

   79.4                II Ki.        17.3

 83.10                I Chron.    18.2

109.25                                18.6

Isa.          7.24                               18.13

Jer.        26.18                  II Chron. 13.9

Lam.        1.11                 Psa.       83.10

Ezek.       17.6 (2x)           Isa.         18.5

19.3,6                  Ezek.      19.3,6,11

 23.10                              23.10

Micah      3.12                                36.3

Dan.        2.35                  Hosea     9.10


Revised Standard Version.                       

Gen.        39.2 (2x)

Berkeley Version.

Gen. 3.20:    "(Eve) became the mother of all living".

4.2:     "Abel became a herder of flocks".

4.21:    "Jabal became father of all tent dwellers".

16.12:  "Jubal became the father of all (musicians)".

17.5:    "Your name shall become Abraham".

21.19:  ".... became an expert bowman".

25.27:  "Esau became an expert hunter".

28.22:  "(This) pillar shall become a house of God".

37.20:  "What becomes of his dreams".

All the above are cases where the translation of   as "became"

is not merely admissible but virtually mandatory in order to give

the true sense of the original: and not one of them is followed by the

proposition   .

There are times almost without number in the Old Testament

where "became" would have been better but was for some reason


     pg.2 of 3     

not adopted by translators in the English versions.   In Genesis

alone there are hundreds of examples. Thus in Gen.4.20 we should

have the words "And he became the father of such as dwell in tents"

and in verse 21, "And he became the father of such as handle the harp

and the organ".   The LXX has correctly translated both passages

English versions simply say, "He was the father, etc.", which clearly

is not nearly as meaningful, historically speaking.  In Gen 5 a

recurrent phrase reads "And all the days of so-and-so came to be

(ie. , became) such-and-such".   The Hebrew has the verb   in

the original, and the LXX correctly renders this "   

   ", and so forth. The Hebrew scholars in Alexandria had

no hesitation in equating  with   .

Thus if one were to allow all versions to speak with equal voice it

would never again be stated categorically that the translation of   

as "became" is so rare as to be "inadmissible" - as Leupold, for

example, holds in his Exposition of Genesis at Gen. 1.2 (Wartburg

Press, Columbus, Ohio, 1942, p.46).






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  Copyright © 1988 Evelyn White. All rights reserved


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